Winogradsky column lab page!

Welcome to the Winogradsky column lab page! Students from the Departments of Biological Applications and Technology, University of Ioannina and Icthyology and Aquatic Environment, University of Thessaly, Greece and the Microbiology course, Faculty of Sciences, University of Cádiz, Spain, discuss their findings on Winogradsky columns they constructed!

If you want to add a post, please feel free to contact the blog administrators (Hera Karayanni, Sokratis Papaspyrou or Kostas Kormas)!

Καλωσορίσατε στη σελίδα των Winobloggers! Διαδικτυακός τόπος συνάντησης φοιτητών, φοιτητριών και διδασκόντων δύο Τμημάτων από την Ελλάδα: Tμήμα Βιολογικών Εφαρμογών και Τεχνολογιών, Παν/μιο Ιωαννίνων και Τμήμα Γεωπονίας, Ιχθυολογίας και Υδάτινου Περιβάλλοντος, Παν/μιο Θεσσαλίας και ενός από την Ισπανία: Σχολή Θετικών Επιστημών, Πανεπιστήμιο του Cadiz. Παρακολουθούμε, σχολιάζουμε, ρωτάμε, απαντάμε σχετικά με τα πειράματά μας, τις στήλες Winogradsky!

Bienvenidos a la pagina web de los Winobloggers! Aquí los estudiantes y profesores de dos departamentos griegos, el Departamento de Aplicaciones y Tecnologías Biológicas de la Universidad de Ioannina y el Departmento de Agricultura, Ictiología y Sistemas Acuáticos de la Universidad de Thessalia, junto con los estudiantes de Microbiología de la Facultad de Ciencias en la Universidad de Cádiz, se reúnen para observar, comentar, preguntar y responder a preguntas relacionadas con nuestro experimento, la columna Winogradsky.

Winogradksy columns

Winogradksy columns
'In the field of observation, chance only favors the prepared mind' Pasteur 1854

Blog posts

Saturday, 29 April 2017

Winoblog, Second post, group B7.

            In this second post, we can appreciate a change in the colour of our “Winogradsky column”. The methane wall cavity has been deleted, because organic substance’s excess was consumed. Besides, is possible to see muddy water. 

            In addition, a rosy colour appears, because a microorganism like Chromatium uses CO2 and H2S to create organic molecules. On top of rosy stratum, we can see other stratum more light where we find Rhodomicrobium. Rhodomicrobium uses CO2 and organic acids to produce organic molecules.

             Finally, at the beginning of Winogradsky column, there is a space that has oxygen. This oxygen is utilized for filamentous microorganism like Beggiatoa, it produces sulfuric acid and organic molecules. Besides that, on wáter, photosynthetic mirobes make their work.

Figure 1: A rosy stratum.

Figure 2: Photo taken 31st March.

Figure 3: Space with oxygen.

Monday, 24 April 2017

UCA_C2_1: Day 1 - Our Winogradsky column

Hi! We are Irene, Raúl and Nieves. We are studying Biotechnology in Cádiz and we want to show and explain you how we prepares our Winogradsky column. On later posts, we will see some changes due to the growth of many microorganisms.
Our column is made of:

  • Rio San Pedro sediment (mud and sand)
  • 0,23 g sugar
  • 0,02 g filter paper
  • 0,40 g CaSO4
We have decided to add sugar and filter paper in order to give microorganisms a carbon source to do fermentation. They will release some waste products that will be used by another microorganisms to do anaerobic breathing, so they could use CaSO4 (sulphate source) to break down into H2S. This sulphide will be used too by another ones, and so on.
We think that our column is a gradient of O2 and H2S, so we will appreciate different types of microorganisms (aerobic and anaerobic ones) distinguished by colours. At the top of the column, where there is a lot of O2, aerobic microorganisms will grow. Whenever we descend to the bottom, the amount of H2S increases and O2 disappear, so it favours anaerobic microorganisms growth.
We haven't taken photos of the column the first day, but we will see the evolution on the next posts.

Sunday, 23 April 2017

UCA_4A_Entrada 1: 1º day

Hi there! We are Elena, Pepi and Marta and we are going to explain how we did our column in the lab. First of all, we mixed  20,9 g of mud with some seawater until we had an homogenean mixture. Then, we added :
- 0,41 g of CaSO4 because it is a source of sulfur for  aminoacids. SO42-  + O.M  à  CO2 + H2S-
- 0,21 g of NaCl because we want halophilic bacteria to grow.
- 0,58 g of CaCOso autotrophic bacteria can grow.
- 0,31 g of C12H22O11, which is a common carbon natural source and also allows heterotrophic microorganisms to grow.
- 0,22 g of cellulose, another carbon natural source that also allows heterotrophic microorganisms to grow.
- 0,1 g of agar, a polysaccharide  that attatches cells.
Now we introduced the mixture in our test tube.
After that, we measured 30 g of mud and we mixed it with 90 g of sand, and we added this new mixture to the test tube too.
We also added a bit of seawater at the top of the test tube and left it in the lab for one week.
The results we expect to get is a concentration gradient that shows the different types of microorganisms that grows in our Winogradsky Column.

Saturday, 22 April 2017

Winogradski Column. First post

Hello we are David , Diego and Malena, we are Biotechnology students. We have prepared a Winogradsky column and we are going to show the changes that have been produced. 
The Winogradsky column is a microorganism cultivating resource. The base components we use are :
- Sand 75 gr.
-Mud 25 gr.
-Thin layer of sea water 
This components are the same for every columns. Moreover we decided to add :
-0.13 gr of sugar as a carbon source
-0.10 gr of calcium sulfate as a sulfur source
- 0.09 gr of  yeast to produce fermentation.At the bottom of the column there is no oxygen, so it will be a different  source of organic matter,for example , lactic acid.
We will try to make a gradient of O2 at the top and H2S at the bottom so that both aerobic and anaerobic organism can grow.
Our hypothesis is that heterotroph organism will grow because of the external carbon addition and also sulfur fixative bacteria because of the sulfur source.

Friday, 21 April 2017

UCA_5B_2: Day 15 (Germán López Toledo & Miguel Bruzón Lobatón)

Fifteen days after we created our Winogradsky Column, it has been occurred  a lot of changes. Firstly, we could see a big bubble of methane (that it is a proof of our excess of carbon and sulphate). We had to take a stike to go down the mud which was over the bubble in order to ease the gas exchange in the column. Excepting for this week, there was, at least, one a week. Bearing in mind the methane's bubble, when it was bursted, the surrounding's smell was the typical and awful one. Apart from this one, there was not anyone else. The whole black color is due to the excessive quantity of iron sulphate. This means a high level of anaerobic respiration.

Moreover, it has been formed a pink section where there are an opaque liquid with little sediments n the upper part. This is because of the metabolic activity of the microorganisms. This pink part appeared two weeks before the photograph was taken.

Thursday, 20 April 2017

Winoblog, First post, group B7.

          In this post, we are going to explain our theories about the experiment that we have done in microbiology. This experiment is called “Winogradsky column”, his name came from first scientist that realized it.
           Our column was filled up with portions of natural mud, sand, and sea water. These are the column’s principal elements, but we need to add more nutrients for bacterial growth.   We need to create an oxygen gradient. In the bottom of the column there aren’t any oxygen (only sulphates SO42-), and in the top the oxygen concentration is equal to the atmospheric.

         In order to create this gradient, we putted several nutrients to feed diferent kinds of bacterias. It is use to occasion a microecosystem where there are many food chains.
The nutrients we added were:

  • -FeSO4 (to give a sulphate source, and a iron source).
  • -Cellulose (to give a source of carbohydrates that some kind of bacterias can use).
  • -NaCl  (to equilibrate column’s osmotic pressure).
  • -CaSO4, Chalk (in order to give a calcium and sulphate source).
  • -Yeast extract (it is use to nutrient source).

          Amount nutrients can change according to microorganism’s needs. It preferably utilize a low concentation of those because our Winogradsky column can take a long time to flourish o it can lead to methane wall cavities.

Figure 1: Methane wall cavities.
Figure 2: Winogradsky column. Photo taken after one week.

Saturday, 8 April 2017


Hello!! We are Andrea, Alessia and Victoria. We are students of biotechnology in Cádiz and we will show you the changes that we see in our column of Winogradsky.

Rio San Pedro sediment + CaSO4

We have decided to add only CaSO4 to see which microorganisms can live in these conditions.
Firstly, we have mixed CaSO4 with sea water and San Pedro River mud. This mixture has been added to a transparent tube which has been exposed to solar light for some weeks.

After a week, we can see that the column has a different color. This is because the organisms have begun to grow at the bottom of the tube. These organisms are anaerobic so they do not need oxygen to grow, they use the sulfate we had added.

After three weeks, we see how more organisms have grown near the surface. These organisms need other conditions to grow. They need oxygen in addition to sunlight. On the surface have grown filaments that look like “hairs”.

Thursday, 6 April 2017

UCA_E5-6MICRO: First day.

Hi! We are Anabel, Paco, Irene, Misael and Gabriel students of Enology. We will show you our experiment of Winogradsky column during this quarter.

To prepare our Winogradsky’s column we have chosen supply carbon with extract of yeast due to it is an excellent way to get nutrients like vitamins and amino acids. We have weighed 1,4g.
Later we have weighed 40g of mud and 0,6g of Na2SO4 which is the substrate to growth of sulphate reducing bacterias.
The mud and Na2SO4 are mixed with extract of yeast and they are divided in two columns.
Then we weighed 180g of sand and 60g of mud, then mixed and divided in columns. One column was put in the dark and the other one was put in natural light.
What we expect is that there is stablished oxygen gradient and an interdependence in the columns between different micro-organisms included in the columns.
In the zone below at columns micro-organisms that develop fermentatives process should grow producing alcohol and fatty acids like subproducts of their metabolism. This products are substrates for the development of sulphate reducing bacterias. This bacterias liberate sulphide that spread to the oxygenated higher zone creating a gradient where photosynthetic bacterias that use sulphur are developed.
Finally, the cianobacterias and algae grow in the higher zone and they liberate oxygen that keep this zone aerobic.
We haven't taken photos of our column in this first state, but later we will upload some of them.

Wednesday, 5 April 2017

UCA_5B_1: Day 1 (Germán López Toledo & Miguel Bruzón Lobatón)

We are first-year students of Biotechnology in Cádiz, and we will write three post about our Winogradsky Column. It is formed by two differentiated parts, which have unique chemical composition.  This experiment is been taken place in order to realise how and where the various microbial species can have it vital cycle.

The first day, we created our column with: 20 g of Río San Pedro´s mud, a little bit of water from the same place and 0´3 g of NaCl. Furthemore, we added 1 g of CaSO4 as a source of sulphate for anaerobic breathing and, as a carbon source, we added 1,6 g of Agar, 0´3 g of cellulose and 0´8 g of CaCO3. Finally, we added 20 g of sand and a little bit more of mud.

We think we have added too much of carbon source.

We will tell the changes in our Winogradsky Column in the next post .

Monday, 3 April 2017

UCA_3A_1: Day 1 - What's about our column?

Hi! We are María, Cristina and Ara, students of biotechnology. We will show you our experiment of Winogradsky column during this quarter.

In our column, we add 20 g of mud from Rio San Pedro. We have focused on the production of halophilic bacteria, that is to say that our bacteria will grow in a very high percentage of salt. Exactly, we add 1,2 g of NaCl. Moreover, we add 0,3 g of CaSO4 as a sulphate source and 0,3 g of cellulose (paper) as a carbon source for our bacteria. Finally, we add 30 g of mud more, 22 g of sand and 1.99 g of NaCl more (we have put a lot of mud and just a bit of sand). We wait some months to be able to see our results!
We haven't taken photos of our column in its first state, but later we will upload some of them.

Saturday, 1 April 2017

Winogradsky column

Winogradsky Column

Our group is formed by a group of students of biotechnology (Marta,Chiara and Juan) and we are so pleased to show you the development of our Winogradsky column along several weeks.

Raw materials.
-NaCl, as a source of salt (0.4g)
-Mug, like the habitat of the bacteria (20g)
-CaCO3,as a source of calcium, (0.46g)
-Na2SO4, it releases energy in water (0.42g)
-Paper, as a source of carbon (0.3g)
 -Yeast, it allows bacteria to do fermentation (0.41g)

- The paper is one of the most important elements in the increasing of the heterotrophic microorganism because it´s their one source of organic carbon. This kind of organisms can´t produce photosynthesis.
- The ion SO4- can be the source of aminoacids like cysteine or methionine. There are a kind of  chemoautotrophs organisms that use the energy of the oxidation reaction (the oxidation of the sulfur). They don´t need the oxygen to live.
- The yeast creates a culture medium rich in energy thanks to the process of fermentation.
- The mug is rich in ammonium salts, that are one of the main sources of nitrogen, a very important compound of aminoacids and nucleic acids. There are a kind of bacterias that fix the nitrogen of the soil, for example the Rhizobium.
We think that is very posible the growing of heterotrophic, Sulphurous, Nitrifyng, fermenters bacterias.

From the begining the whole column were black and we could not notice any difference in the organisation

First week.

In the first week we can see a different organisation, we can see tree parts;The brown one on the top of the column(with some air caused by fermentation),a black one in the middle and a grey one in the bottom.

Second week.

We notice that the black part has increased making a gap of air because of fermentation.The organisation remains equal and there is far more air in the whole column.
Third week

 In the third week the structure is the same as in the previous week, but we notice that some seaweeds have grown up on the top of the column,where is oxygen that is needed by it,because of CaCO3,and it is important to underline that in the middle of the column has appear SO4(2-) precipitated.